Hp mini 5101 driver
HP Mini 5101.HP Mini Software and Driver Downloads | HP® Customer Support
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HP Mini 5101
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HP Mini 5101 – Specifications
HP Mini – Specifications | HP® Customer Support
New version of the single-electron transistor on cobalt
A group of researchers at Cornell University claims to be able to demonstrate the behavior of a single cobalt atom, similar to the key mode of operation of a transistor. Thus, scientists say, it is possible to create logical transistor circuits in which the element size will be about 1.3 nanometers.
In the experiment, a cobalt atom was placed inside an organic alkyl chain, which, in turn, was connected to a gold conductor. When current is passed through a conductor, scientists report observing a series of voltage level changes, which, in their opinion, is explained by the “transistor” behavior of cobalt atoms.
According to Professor Paul McEuen, who leads a group of scientists at Cornell University, the cobalt atoms were chosen because they have two distinct electrical methods of states. The transition from one state to another is carried out under the action of external forces, or, simply put, by the addition or release of an electron.
To obtain such a nanostructure, an octahedral shell (the role of which is played by a carbon-hydrogen alkyl chain) and two more chains of pyridine (a substance derived from benzene) are chemically created around cobalt atoms, which serve as contacts. At the end of the pyridine chain are pairs of sulfur and hydrogen atoms, which form a strong bond with gold.
It remains only to marvel at how scientists managed to assemble such a structure. To do this, Mc’Ewen says, they used a method of chemical “self-assembly” on a silicon substrate. The chip was created by growing a 30nm layer of silicon dioxide on a doped silicon substrate, which plays the role of a common bus for all keys. Gold conductors having a length of 400 nm, a width of 200 nm and a thickness of 15 nm were fabricated on the chip surface using electron beam lithography. Then their surface was cleaned with acetone, methylene chloride and oxygen plasma. And finally, the chip was immersed for several hours in a solution containing the required chemicals in the right proportion, so that a monolayer of nanotransistors was formed on the surface of the gold conductors.
But the process doesn’t end there. Next, the chip is cooled to a very low temperature (presumably, the boiling point of liquid nitrogen), and a current is passed through the conductors slightly exceeding their maximum load. As a result, microcracks are formed in the chip, about 1.2 nm in thickness, and through these cracks organic molecules with cobalt in the center can throw a kind of bridges from their long pyridine chains. The moment when these cracks form is determined by the sharp drop in current through the conductors. Here, scientists are favored by the fact that pieces of nanotransistors (alkyl or pyridine chains, possibly containing cobalt) remain on the surface of the cracks, so the probability of the formation of new “transistors” across the cracks is quite high.
Well, then it’s a matter of technology – to remove the current-voltage characteristic depending on the potential on the common bus. According to Mc’Ewan, monatomic transistors switch from one electron. And although so far this “toy” cannot be called a transistor in the full sense, this means that scientists have managed to create a device with a quantum efficiency close to unity by classical methods.
The next step, says Mc’Ewen, will be to create an electronic key using a molecule in which the two states will have different configurations. Mc’Ewen and his colleague Park, who took part in the development of the cobalt key, originally worked on the creation of carbon nanotube devices. It is possible that in the next work, scientists will use the same microcracks in gold conductors, but instead of cobalt, they will contain C60 fullerene molecules. In 2000, scientists have already published (the journal Nature) the first results of a study of the possibility of creating single-electron transistors based on fullerenes.